The first is an incongruent structure of expectations which is correlative to the conflict situation. The balance may shift in time, however, and aggravated by sociocultural dissimilarity and cognitive imbalance, will produce incongruent expectations.
Without such incongruency between two states there would be no conflict situation. There would be no mutual antiforeign riots or demonstrations, and tension, friction, and coolness in relations.
When incongruency occurs, such a conflict situation is produced; tension and hostility are generated. This disruption divides in time, and thus in the phase map, the conflict situation from the situation of uncertainty and the balancing of powers.
The disruption of expectations is the necessary and sufficient cause of intentional, state Conflict Behavior, whether negative communications, sanctions, or war.
International Conflict Behavior assumes such a disruption has occurred; its occurrence produces Conflict Behavior. There are no other jointly necessary and sufficient causes. Incongruency and disruption are thus basic, and have been given considerable theoretical analysis in previous chapters and volumes, especially in terms of the conflict helix: There are a number of necessary causes that operate throughout or in various phases and subphases of the conflict process, as shown in the phase map.
Considering the necessary cause of Conflict Behavior in general first these are the lines beginning with the conflict situation or situation of uncertainty and running completely across the phase mapone is the distance vectors between states in sociocultural space.
These mirror the basic opposition between national interests and capabilities--they measure the relative position of states in their meanings, values, norms, status, and class.
Opposing interests are necessary to the latent conflict situation and for the actual balancing that takes place. In addition, perceptions and expectations specific to each actor as described in Chapter 5 are necessary to their conflict.
What the situational content of these might be depends on the actor.
One is a significant change in the balance of powers. This is a change in interests, capabilities, or will credibility that causes one or both parties to feel that their understandings and agreements, the distribution of rights and benefits, duties and responsibilities--in short the structure of expectations--are wrong, unjust, inconsistent with their powers, and should and can be altered to the advantage of one or the other.
The second necessary cause of disruption is a will-to-conflict. No Conflict Behavior can occur unless the parties are willing to confront each other.
So far then, for Conflict Behavior to occur between two states there must be a particular combination of sociocultural distances between them an opposition of their interests and capabilitiesmutual awareness contact and saliencea significant change in their balance of powers, disrupted expectations, and a will-to-conflict.
Besides these necessary causes of Conflict Behavior of all kinds, violence uniquely assumes the existence of three additional necessary causes, as shown in the phase map Figure One is the expectation of success. In their own subjective calculus of gains and losses, each party believes that the outcome of violence will be advantageous even if it means for one invaded that it will at least succeed in forcing concessions from the aggressor.
A second necessary cause of violence is a disrupted status quo. The status quo defines for states the ideological and territorial distribution of who has what.
It is the core of the structure of expectations. Without a disruption in the status quo the issues are neither important or clear enough to warrant violence. The third necessary cause is that a party to the conflict be nonlibertarian authoritarian or totalitarian.
Violence will not occur between two libertarian or liberal democratic states: Such is not the case for nonlibertarian states. There is only one such cause, and it is of a conflict situation, not formal or official conflict behavior.
It produces a conflict situation, perhaps manifested in tension, hostility, friction, coolness, and antiforeign demonstrations. Interstate relations remain "correct," but beneath the pot is boiling. And this change is a necessary cause for the subsequent Conflict Behavior as shown in the phase maponce expectations have been disrupted.
Note that there is a logical relationship between incongruent expectations as a necessary and sufficient cause of hostility and tension, and a significant change in the balance of powers as a sufficient cause.
That is, what states want, can get, or are resolved to get are no longer consistent with their understandings or agreements. Four such conditions affect international Conflict Behavior generally, regardless of phase or subphase.
One is sociocultural dissimilarity, which makes opposing interest more likely and aggravates communications between parties. The second is cognitive imbalance, or the imbalance in relationships or status between parties.
Such can create a pressure towards misperception and miscommunication, and necessitate a conflict aggravating readjustment. A third aggravator is the overall status difference distance vectoror rank between parties.The Hundred Years' War was fought from and it lasted years.
What were the causes of the Years' War? The causes of the Year War were disagreements over rights to land, a dispute over the succession to the French throne and economic conflicts.
Feb 09, · Member states must not undertake military action without UN authorisation; its role should not be confined to picking up the pieces after conflict.
Eradication of war will not be easy but can be achieved piecemeal over time, and health workers have a key role.
There is a medical model—the elimination of smallpox and soon of polio by surveillance, treatment, and preventive . character of military power among states are the root causes of war and peace. Specifically, the peace in Europe since precarious at first, but increasingly robust over time--has flowed from three factors: the bipolar distribution of military power on the.
While the end of the cold war saw a dramatic decline in inter-state conflicts, the number of and examine the characteristics of. iv West Africa. 3 National security was synonymous with military might or power. In spite of the. Feb 09, · Member states must not undertake military action without UN authorisation; its role should not be confined to picking up the pieces after conflict.
Eradication of war will not be easy but can be achieved piecemeal over time, and health workers have a key role. There is a medical model—the elimination of smallpox and soon of polio by surveillance, treatment, and preventive . The Causes of International Conflict.
b. 2nd level: that the causes of war are traceable to states’ internal characteristics (ie economic system, type of govt, extreme love of country) when changes occur in the world’s most powerful countries’ military capabilities look out: major power wars have often been the result.