Meltdown at the EPA.
Healthy Forests Initiative There are many more environmental laws in the United States, both at the federal and state levels.
The common law of property and takings also play an important role in environmental issues. In addition, the law of standingrelating to who has a right to bring a lawsuit, is an important issue in environmental law in the United States.
Origins of the environmental movement[ edit ] Main article: Environmental movement in the United States The history of environmental law in the United States can be traced back to early roots in common law doctrines, for example, the law of nuisance and the public trust doctrine.
The first statutory environmental law was the Rivers and Harbors Act ofwhich has been largely superseded by the Clean Water Act. However, most current major environmental statutes, such as the federal statutes listed above, were passed during the modern environmental movement spanning the late s through the early s.
Prior to the passage of these statutes, most federal environmental laws were not nearly as comprehensive. During this period, the U. Forest Service was formed and public concern for consumer protection began, epitomized by the publication of The Jungle by Upton Sinclair.
The modern environmental movement was inspired in part by the publication of Rachel Carson 's controversial book Silent Springwhich pointed out the perils of pesticide use and rallied concern for the environment in general. Carson argued that nature deserved human protection and referred to pesticides as the atomic bomb for insects.
She stated that these pesticides would cycle through the environment hurting humans and nature and thought they should be used wisely. Carson played a big role in environment activism that was later to come.
The movement that formed held three key values: These values—that we depend and are interconnected with the environment, that insults to the environment can affect our health, and that we should limit our dependence on non-renewable resources—along with a uniquely sympathetic president and Congress, led to great environmental policy change in the s.
In the Club of Rome report came out which was a scholarly effort to gauge the severity of the environmental problem. A team of researchers concluded with one of the most alarming appraisals of the time and set off widespread debates over the findings, its methods, and policy implications.
The model was built mainly to investigate major trends of global concerns such as accelerating industrialization, rapid population growth, widespread malnutrition, depletion of nonrenewable resources and a deteriorating environment.
They concluded that if the present growth trends in world population, industrialization, pollution, food production, and resource depletion remains unchanged than the limits to growth on this planet will be reached sometime within the next one hundred years. Federal Power Commission, decided in by the Second Circuit Court of Appealsprior to passage of the major federal environmental statutes.
The case has been described as giving birth to environmental litigation and helping create the legal doctrine of standing to bring environmental claims. Later in the year, Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency EPAwhich consolidated environmental programs from other agencies into a single entity.
The legislation during this period concerned primarily first-generation pollutants in the air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste disposal. Air pollutants such as particulatessulfur dioxidenitrogen dioxidecarbon monoxideand ozone were put under regulation, and issues such as acid rainvisibilityand global warming were also concerns.
In surface water, the pollutants of concern were conventional pollutants bacteriabiochemical oxygen demand and suspended solidsdissolved solids, nutrients, and toxic substances such as metals and pesticides.
For groundwater, the pollutants included biological contaminants, inorganic and organic substances, and radionuclides. Finally, solid waste contaminants from agriculture, industry, mining, municipalities, and other sectors were put under control.
The new CAA standards that were to be promulgated were unattainable with existing technology—they were technology-forcing. The standards that the EPA put into place called mainly for state implementation. The CAA also enacted deadlines and penalties for automobile emission standards in new cars, resulting in the development and adoption of catalytic converters and greatly reducing automobile pollution.
For wastewater, each discharging facility was required to obtain a permit, and EPA began to issue new federal standards " effluent guidelines " that required industries to use the " best available technology " for treating their wastes.
Congress also established a massive public works program to assist in the construction of sewage treatment plants for municipalities, and most plants were required to meet secondary treatment standards. The Ford Administration [ edit ] This section needs expansion with: You can help by adding to it.
May The Carter Administration [ edit ] This section needs expansion with: May The Reagan Administration — [ edit ] Ronald Reagan entered office skeptical of environmental protection laws and campaigned against harsh government regulation with the environmental arena in mind.
As Reagan entered office, he was given two transition reports — one called "Mandate for Leadership" from the Heritage Foundation and one called "Avoiding a GOP Economic Dunkirk" from conservative Congressman David Stockman R-MI — that called for drastic changes in environmental regulation, primarily through administrative changes.While air and water standards have been slowly improving, in 70 million people still lived in counties that didn't meet EPA ozone standards.
36% of rivers and 39% of lakes didn't meet minimum standards for all uses (swimming, fishing, drinking, supporting aquatic life). The Criticisms of The Bush Administration to Scrap Clinton's Standards in Drinking Water PAGES 2.
WORDS View Full Essay. More essays like this: drinking water, environmental protection agency, christine whitman, bush administration. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed. Feb 23, · One enduring impression of the Bush administration's approach to clean water was left by its decision, in its early days, to scrap a standard proposed by the Clinton administration .
While air and water standards have been slowly improving, in 70 million people still lived in counties that didn't meet EPA ozone standards. 36% of rivers and 39% of lakes didn't meet minimum standards for all uses (swimming, fishing, drinking, supporting aquatic life).
In May , the Obama administration dismissed charges that had been filed by the Bush administration against members of the New Black Panther Party who had been videotaped intimidating voters and brandishing a police-style baton at a Philadelphia polling station during .
Apr 19, · President Bush drew heavy criticism from environmentalists and others last month when his EPA killed a Clinton administration regulation that would have tightened the standard to no more than 10 parts of arsenic per billion in drinking water.