October 15, John Lauritsen is correct on some issues, in the middle on others and I disagree with him about some, especially AIDS. Sorry, John, I bit your head off but this is a highly volatile puntended subject and I doubt there will ever be conscencus.
Published March 22, By Dr. Namrata Chhabra Case details A- 29 years old officer presented to emergency department complaining of chills and breathing difficulty.
He was a heroin abuser who was admitted in the same hospital 7 years ago because of drug over dosage. He had lost 10 kg of body weight since his last clinical visit.
On examination, he had multiple enlarged lymph nodes.
Several red nodules were there on the chest and arms. His body temperature was 40oC, B. The chest radiograph showed diffuse pneumonia. What is your presumptive diagnosis for this patient? What is the biochemical basis for all the clinical manifestations seen in this patient?
How can the diagnosis be confirmed? Intravenous drug usage seems to be the major causative factor. Kaposi sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia are considered markers of AIDS since they signify the underlying collapsed immune system.
Incidence HIV human immunodeficiency virus infection has now spread to every country in the world. Approximately 40 million people are currently living with HIV infection, and an estimated 25 million have died from this disease. The scourge of HIV has been particularly devastating in sub-Saharan Africa, but infection rate in other countries remain high.
In the United States, approximately 1 million people are currently infected. Both these are markers of collapsed immune system, The affected patients appeared to have lost their immune competence, rendering them vulnerable to overwhelming and fatal infections with relatively avirulent micro-organisms, as well as to lymphoid and other malignancies.
This family of viruses is known for latency, persistent viremia, infection of the nervous system, and weak host immune responses. HIV binds to CD4 cells and becomes internalized. The virus replicates itself by generating a DNA copy by reverse transcriptase.
Besides HIV, the related animal immunodeficiency viruses are also assigned to this group. There is a lipoprotein envelop, which consists of lipids derived from the host cell membrane and glycoproteins which are viral coded. The major virus coded envelop proteins are the projecting knob like spikes on the surface and the anchoring transmembrane pedicles.
The spikes, gp constitute the major surface component of the virus which binds to the cell CD4 receptors on susceptible host cells. Transmembrane pedicles gp 41 cause cell to cell fusion. The proteins and glycoproteins are indicated by their mass expressed as kilo Daltons The reverse transcriptase enzyme is characteristic feature of retroviruses.
When the virus infects a cell, the viral RNA is transcribed by the enzyme first in to single stranded DNA and then in to double stranded DNA proviruswhich is integrated in to the host cell chromosome. The provirus can remain latent for long period though it influences the host cell functions.
At times in response to viral promoters, the provirus initiates viral replication by directing the synthesis of viral RNA and other components.
The HIV genome consists of two copies of the single stranded RNA, which are associated with two molecules of Reverse transcriptase p64, protease p10 and integrase p The outer viral proteins are gp and gp Glycosylation occurs after cleavage.Hiv-Reaction Paper; Hiv-Reaction Paper.
3 March AIDS; That scene made viewers noticed that the film’s director is not that great in directing compared to other veteran directors awarded locally and internationally. Dim scenes should be enhanced because inside the movie house is already dark which means that it would be boring to view.
The new formulation was first introduced as an over-the-counter drug, and later came out with the MSP at Low concentrations as a trace mineral dietary supplement at 30 ppm. At concentrations above 12, ppm * the research lab believes more human testing needs to be conducted before recommending this special formulation MSP for human use..
Ongoing studies done in-vitro and in-vivo over the. Results from a new study may lead to approval of what could be the first drug that ameliorates potentially deadly reactions in children with severe peanut allergies.
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Leptospirosis Vaccines Adverse Reaction "Vaccination with Leptospira is fraught with problems. Leptospira vaccines cannot even protect the dog from infection with Leptospira or renal colonization. HIV/AIDS Reaction paper by Anne Francesca Marielle C. Torres The Human Immunodeficiency virus infection/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or simply know as HIV/AIDS is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).