Plan of the Book This chapter briefly describes the 3-way pattern of race differences.
As he did not believe human beings were apeshe believed this might have been during the Cretaceouscontrary to what is possible given the geologic and evolutionary biology evidence available at the time. On the advice of his colleagues, Hardy delayed presenting the hypothesis for approximately thirty years.
Several national newspapers reported sensational presentations of Hardy's ideas, which he countered by explaining them more fully in an article in New Scientist on 17 March Some interest was received, notably from the geographer Carl Sauer whose views on the role of the seashore in human evolution  "stimulated tremendous progress in the study of coastal and aquatic adaptations" inside marine archaeology.
Another screenwriter, Elaine Morgan, responded to this focus in her Descent of Woman, which parodied the conventional picture of "the Tarzanlike figure of the prehominid who came down from the trees, saw a grassland teeming with game, picked up a weapon and became a Mighty Hunter,"  and pictured a more peaceful scene of humans by the seashore.
She took her lead from a section in Morris's book which referred to the possibility of an Aquatic Ape period in evolution, his name for the speculation by the biologist Alister Hardy in When it aroused no reaction in the academic community, she dropped the feminist criticism and wrote a series of books—The Aquatic ApeThe Scars of EvolutionThe Descent of the Child and The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis —which explored the issues in more detail.
My thesis is that a branch of this primitive ape -stock was forced by competition from life in the trees to feed on the sea-shores and to hunt for food, shell fishsea-urchins etc. I suppose that they were forced into the water just as we have seen happen in so many other groups of terrestrial animals.
I am imagining this happening in the warmer parts of the world, in the tropical seas where Man could stand being in the water for relatively long periods, that is, several hours at a stretch.
He pointed to human's lack of body hair as being analogous to the same lack seen in certain other marine mammals, such as the whale and the hippopotamus  and noted the layer of subcutaneous fat humans have that Hardy believed other apes lacked, although it has been shown that captive apes with ample access to food have levels of subcutaneous fat similar to humans.
Morgan summed up her take on the hypothesis in Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan.
Other academics have argued that the rejection of Hardy and Morgan is partially unfair given that other explanations which suffer from similar problems are not so strongly opposed.
A conference devoted to the subject was held at ValkenburgNetherlands in Its 22 participants included academic proponents and opponents of the theory and several neutral observers headed by the anthropologist Vernon Reynolds of Oxford University.
His summary at the end was: Overall, it will be clear that I do not think it would be correct to designate our early hominid ancestors as 'aquatic'.
But at the same time there does seem to be evidence that not only did they take to water from time to time but that the water and by this I mean inland lakes and rivers was a habitat that provided enough extra food to count as an agency for selection.
It is not accepted as empirically supported by the scholarly community,    and has been met with significant skepticism. Langdon argued that however popular the idea was with the public, the "umbrella" nature of the idea means that it cannot serve as a proper scientific hypothesis.
Langdon also objected to Morgan's blanket opposition to the " savannah hypothesis " which he took to be the "collective discipline of paleoanthropology".
He observed that some anthropologists had regarded the idea as not worth the trouble of a rebuttal. In addition, the evidence cited by AAH proponents mostly concerned developments in soft tissue anatomy and physiology, whilst paleoanthropologists rarely speculated on evolutionary development of anatomy beyond the musculoskeletal system and brain size as revealed in fossils.
After a brief description of the issues under 26 different headings, he produced a summary critique of these with mainly negative judgments. His main conclusion was that the AAH was unlikely ever to be disproved on the basis of comparative anatomy, and that the one body of data that could potentially disprove it was the fossil record.
Hawks wrote that it is fair to categorize the AAH as pseudoscience because of the social factors that inform it, particularly the personality-led nature of the hypothesis and the unscientific approach of its adherents.
Misunderstandings of Human Evolutionthe Nature editor Henry Gee remarked on how a seafood diet can aid in the development of the human brain. He nevertheless criticized the AAH because "it's always a problem identifying features [such as body fat and hairlessness] that humans have now and inferring that they must have had some adaptive value in the past.
Foley and Lahr suggest that "to flirt with anything watery in paleoanthropology can be misinterpreted", but argue "there is little doubt that throughout our evolution we have made extensive use of terrestrial habitats adjacent to fresh water, since we are, like many other terrestrial mammals, a heavily water-dependent species.
Along the same lines, historian Erika Lorraine Milam noted that independent of Morgan's work, certain standard explanations of human development in paleoanthropology have been roundly criticized for lacking evidence while being based on sexist assumptions. Tobias praised Morgan's book Scars of Evolution as a "remarkable book" though he said that he did not agree with all of it.
And of course we're not related to dolphins. She assumed that the total lack of response to her book from the academic community was due to the fact that she was an outsider.
But in respect of the aquatic theme that is what I got from them - and with few exceptions still get. That kind of silence is a virtually unbeatable strategy". Wading and bipedalism[ edit ] After reviewing 30 different explanations of bipedalism, evolutionary biologist Carsten Niemitz proposed a "shore dweller" hypothesis of wading, though distancing himself from the AAH.
Although it is harder to walk upright with bent knees on land, this difference gradually diminishes as the depth of water increases  and is still practical in thigh-high water.
Gee writes that early humans have been bipedal for 5 million years, but our ancestor's "fondness for seafood" emerged a mereyears ago. Food, Evolution and The Future, Michael Crawford together with co-author David Marsh wrote about the connections they saw between nutrition and human evolution, and in particular claimed that Omega-3 fatty acids were vital for the development of the brain.
Searching for oysters, mussels, crabs, crayfish and so on they would have spent much of their time in the water and an upright position would have come naturally. The only way it could have happened was with the resources of the marine food-web which initiated the growth and development of the brain in the first place".
Fish bones often decompose so that special tests are required to detect them.Windsor, N.S., Canada “Facts do not cease to exist simply because they are ignored.” – Aldous Leonard Huxley. Ice Hockey is a Canadian game. This is a concise scientific refutation of the theory that man and primates share the same ancestor.
It's a shame that so many people don't stop and test the claim of common descent and the shabby "evidence" that amounts to bone fragments and vague, partial visual similarities.
Today I found out the origin of the word “soccer”.
For all you out there who love to complain when Americans, and certain others, call “Football”, “Soccer”, you should know that it was the British that invented the word and it was also one of the first names of what we now primarily know of as “Football”. Windsor, N.S., Canada “Facts do not cease to exist simply because they are ignored.” – Aldous Leonard Huxley.
Ice Hockey is a Canadian game. The Oxford evolution debate took place at the Oxford University Museum in Oxford, England, on 30 June , seven months after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.
Several prominent British scientists and philosophers participated, including Thomas Henry Huxley, Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, Benjamin Brodie, Joseph Dalton Hooker and Robert FitzRoy. Introduction Taking isolated similarities by themselves, the theory of evolution appears to be quite reasonable to a point.
However, it seems that too much weight has been placed on similarities without questioning the differences.