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Signs and symptoms[ edit ] Diagram showing the typical location of renal colicbelow the rib cage to just above the pelvis The hallmark of a stone that obstructs the ureter or renal pelvis is excruciating, intermittent pain that radiates from the flank to the groin or to the inner thigh.
It typically comes in waves lasting 20 to 60 minutes caused by peristaltic contractions of the ureter as it attempts to expel the stone.
Risk factors[ edit ] Dehydration from low fluid intake is a major factor in stone formation.
High dietary intake of animal protein sodiumsugars including honey, refined sugarsfructose and high fructose corn syrup oxalate grapefruit juiceand apple juice may increase the risk of kidney stone formation.
This is typically done with a hour urine collection.
The urine is analyzed for features that promote stone formation. In the United States, kidney stone formation was used as an indicator of excess calcium intake by the Reference Daily Intake committee for calcium in adults.
As the amount of calcium intake decreases, the amount of oxalate available for absorption into the bloodstream increases; this oxalate is then excreted in greater amounts into the urine by the kidneys.
In the urine, oxalate is a very strong promoter of calcium oxalate precipitation—about 15 times stronger than calcium. A study found that diets low in calcium are associated with a higher overall risk for kidney stone formation.
For example, by increasing urinary calcium excretion, high dietary sodium may increase the risk of stone formation. Magnesium inhibits stone formation. Consumption of animal protein creates an acid load that increases urinary excretion of calcium and uric acid and reduced citrate.
Urinary excretion of excess sulfurous amino acids e.
Excessive vitamin D supplementation may increase the risk of stone formation by increasing the intestinal absorption of calcium; correction of a deficiency does not. However, some people have theorized that certain behaviors associated with frequent and binge drinking can lead to dehydration, which can, in turn, lead to the development of kidney stones.
Staghorn kidney stones are considerably larger. Calcium and oxalate come together to make the crystal nucleus. Supersaturation promotes their combination as does inhibition.
Continued deposition at the renal papillae leads to the growth of the kidney stones. Kidney stones grow and collect debris. In the case where the kidney stones block all routes to the renal papillae, this can cause severe discomfort.Q: An older friend, who is in her 90s, has been having bacteria in her urine, but no symptoms.
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