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Necessary and sufficient conditions Indeterminists do not have to deny that causes exist. Instead, they can maintain that the only causes that exist are of a type that do not constrain the future to a single course; for instance, they can maintain that only necessary and not sufficient causes exist.
If x is a necessary cause of y; then the presence of y necessarily implies that x preceded it. The presence of x, however, does not imply that y will occur. If x is a sufficient cause of y, then the presence of x necessarily implies the presence of y.
However, another cause z may alternatively cause y. Thus the presence of y does not imply the presence of x. Mechanics of thesis writing Daniel Dennett points out in Freedom Evolvesit is possible for everything to have a necessary causeeven while indeterminism holds and the future is open, because a necessary condition does not lead to a single inevitable effect.
Thus "everything has a cause" is, in his opinion, not a clear statement of determinism. Still, a question might arise why this and not that effect occurred: On this basis "everything has a cause" might still be understood as an expression of determinism.
Probabilistic causation Interpreting causation as a deterministic relation means that if A causes B, then A must always be followed by B. In this sense, war does not cause deaths, nor does smoking cause cancer.
As a result, many turn to a notion of probabilistic causation. This is sometimes interpreted to reflect the imperfect knowledge of a deterministic system but other times interpreted to mean that the causal system under study has an inherently indeterministic nature. A simple form of demonstrating it would be shooting randomly within a square and then deterministically interpreting a relatively large subsquare as the more probable outcome.
Intrinsic indeterminism versus unpredictability[ edit ] A distinction is generally made between indeterminism and the mere inability to measure the variables limits of precision.
This is especially the case for physical indeterminism as proposed by various interpretations of quantum mechanics.
Yet some philosophers have argued that indeterminism and unpredictability are synonymous. Correspondingly, believers in free will often appeal to physical indeterminism. See compatibilism for a third option. Aristotle[ edit ] The first major philosopher to argue convincingly for some indeterminism was probably Aristotle.
He described four possible causes material, efficient, formal, and final. Aristotle did not subscribe to the simplistic "every event has a single cause" idea that was to come later.
He noted that he and the early physicists found no place for chance among their causes. We have seen how far Aristotle distances himself from any view which makes chance a crucial factor in the general explanation of things. And he does so on conceptual grounds: Hankinson, "Causes" in Blackwell Companion to Aristotle Aristotle opposed his accidental chance to necessity: Will this be, or not?
Yes, if this happens; otherwise not.
Epicurus argued that these swerves would allow us to be more responsible for our actions, something impossible if every action was deterministically caused.
For Epicurus, the occasional interventions of arbitrary gods would be preferable to strict determinism. Leucippus[ edit ] The first concept of chance is found in the Atomism of Leucippusoften confused with that of Democritusthough, in fact, the last studies show many differences between the two.
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