The Literary Forms in Philippine Literature by: Godinez-Ortega The diversity and richness of Philippine literature evolved side by side with the country's history.
Pre-colonial inhabitants of our islands showcase a rich past through their folk speeches, folk songs, folk narratives and indigenous rituals and mimetic dances that affirm our ties with our Southeast Asian neighbors.
The most seminal of these folk speeches is the riddle which is tigmo in Cebuano, bugtong in Tagalog,paktakon in Ilongo and patototdon in Bicol. While some riddles are ingenious, others verge on the obscene or are sex-related: Bell The proverbs or aphorisms express norms or codes of behavior, community beliefs or they instill values by offering nuggets of wisdom in short, rhyming verse.
Other folk songs are the drinking songs sung during carousals like the tagay Cebuano and Waray ; dirges and lamentations extolling the deeds of the dead like the kanogon Cebuano or the Annako Bontoc. A type of narrative song or kissa among the Tausug of Mindanao, the parang sabil, uses for its subject matter the exploits of historical and legendary heroes.
It tells of a Muslim hero who seeks death at the hands of non-Muslims. The folk narratives, i. They explain how the world was created, how certain animals possess certain characteristics, why some places have waterfalls, volcanoes, mountains, flora or fauna and, in the case of legends, an explanation of the origins of things.
Fables are about animals and these teach moral lessons. These epics revolve around supernatural events or heroic deeds and they embody or validate the beliefs and customs and ideals of a community. These are sung or chanted to the accompaniment of indigenous musical instruments and dancing performed during harvests, weddings or funerals by chanters.
The Spanish Colonial Tradition While it is true that Spain subjugated the Philippines for more mundane reasons, this former European power contributed much in the shaping and recording of our literature.
Religion and institutions that represented European civilization enriched the languages in the lowlands, introduced theater which we would come to know as komedya, the sinakulo, the sarswela, the playlets and the drama.
Religious lyrics written by ladino poets or those versed in both Spanish and Tagalog were included in early catechism and were used to teach Filipinos the Spanish language. Another form of religious lyrics are the meditative verses like the dalit appended to novenas and catechisms.
It has no fixed meter nor rime scheme although a number are written in octosyllabic quatrains and have a solemn tone and spiritual subject matter.
Aside from religious poetry, there were various kinds of prose narratives written to prescribe proper decorum.
Like the pasyon, these prose narratives were also used for proselitization. Secular works appeared alongside historical and economic changes, the emergence of an opulent class and the middle class who could avail of a European education.
This Filipino elite could now read printed works that used to be the exclusive domain of the missionaries.
The most notable of the secular lyrics followed the conventions of a romantic tradition: Another popular secular poetry is the metrical romance, the awit and korido in Tagalog.
The awit is set in dodecasyllabic quatrains while the korido is in octosyllabic quatrains. Again, the winds of change began to blow in 19th century Philippines.
Filipino intellectuals educated in Europe called ilustrados began to write about the downside of colonization. This, coupled with the simmering calls for reforms by the masses gathered a formidable force of writers like Jose Rizal, Marcelo H.
Abad to continue writing in Spanish, this did not flourish. The more notable essayists and fictionists were Claro M.
But the introduction of English as medium of instruction in the Philippines hastened the demise of Spanish so that by the s, English writing had overtaken Spanish writing.
But patriotic writing continued under the new colonialists. These appeared in the vernacular poems and modern adaptations of works during the Spanish period and which further maintained the Spanish tradition.The early inhabitants of the Philippine archipelago had a native alphabet or syllabary which among the Tagalogs was called baybayin, an inscription akin to Sanskrit.
It was through the baybayin that literary forms such as songs, riddles and proverbs, lyric and short poems as well as parts of epic poems were written. Religious literature, biography of saints and folktales became the mainstay of vernacular literature during the early period of colonization.
Philippine Literature in Spanish Philippine literature in Spanish can be broadly categorized into three stages or phases. Pre-colonial literature abounds in the form of sabi (maxims), bugtong (riddles), epics, and myths.
The early Filipinos also had a form of government called Barangay, headed by a Datu or Sultan (among the Moros). Feb 26, · Drama as a literary from had not yet begun to evolve among the early Filipinos.
Philippine theater at this stage consisted largely in its simplest form, of mimetic dances imitating natural cycles and work activities.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PHILIPPINE LITERATURE Philippine literature is the literature associated with the Philippines and includes the legends of prehistory, and the colonial legacy of the Philippines.
Most of the notable literature of the Philippines was written during the Spanish period and the first half of the 20th century in Spanish language. Philippine literature is literature associated with the Philippines from prehistory, the literary output began with the articulation of the Philippine experience.
The early writings in English were characterized by melodrama, unreal language, and unsubtle emphasis on local color.