So the total of the Mains exam will be Marks Only. Candidates can give preference of the language in which they may like to be interviewed. UPSC will make arrangement for the translators.
Mesopotamia Ancient Sumerian bas-relief portrait depicting the poetess Enheduanna Women in ancient Sumer could buy, own, sell, and inherit property.
Women in ancient Egypt In ancient Egypt women enjoyed the same rights under the law as a men, however rightful entitlements depended upon social class. Landed property descended in the female line from mother to daughter, and women were entitled to administer their own property.
Women in ancient Egypt could buy, sell, be a partner in legal contractsbe executor in wills and witness to legal documents, bring court action, and adopt children. Women in India Women during the early Vedic period  enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life.
Women in Greece Respectable Athenian women were expected to involve themselves in domestic tasks such as washing clothes left ; in reality, many worked right. Although most women lacked political and equal rights in the city states of ancient Greece, they enjoyed a certain freedom of movement until the Archaic age.
Until marriage, women were under the guardianship of their father or other male relative. Once married, the husband became a woman's kyrios. As women were barred from conducting legal proceedings, the kyrios would do so on their behalf. Slaves could become Athenian citizens after being freed, but no woman ever acquired citizenship in ancient Athens.
This separation would entail living in a room called a gynaikeionwhile looking after the duties in the home and having very little exposure with the male world.
This was also to ensure that wives only had legitimate children from their husbands. Athenian women received little education, except home tutorship for basic skills such as spin, weave, cook and some knowledge of money.
As men engaged in military activity, women took responsibility for running estates. He argued that women's main economic activity is that of safeguarding the household property created by men. According to Aristotle the labour of women added no value because "the art of household management is not identical with the art of getting wealth, for the one uses the material which the other provides".
They also saw marriage as a moral companionship between equals rather than a biological or social necessity, and practiced these views in their lives as well as their teachings. The Stoics adopted the views of the Cynics and added them to their own theories of human nature, thus putting their sexual egalitarianism on a strong philosophical basis.
Women in ancient Rome Roman law, similar to Athenian law, was created by men in favor of men. Roman societyhowever, was patriarchaland women could not vote, hold public officeor serve in the military.
During the Roman Republicthe mother of the Gracchus brothers and of Julius Caesar were noted as exemplary women who advanced the career of their sons.
During the Imperial periodwomen of the emperor's family could acquire considerable political power, and were regularly depicted in official art and on coinage. By 27—14 BCE the ius trium liberorum "legal right of three children" granted symbolic honors and legal privileges to a woman who had given birth to three children, and freed her from any male guardianship.
She then became subject to her husband's potestas, though to a lesser degree than their children. This arrangement was one of the factors in the independence Roman women enjoyed. A married woman retained ownership of any property she brought into the marriage.
The rape of a slave could be prosecuted only as damage to her owner's property. Adulterywhich had been a private family matter under the Republic, was criminalized,  and defined broadly as an illicit sex act stuprum that occurred between a male citizen and a married woman, or between a married woman and any man other than her husband.
Therefore, a married woman could have sex only with her husband, but a married man did not commit adultery when he had sex with a prostituteslaveor person of marginalized status infamis. Stoics of the Imperial era such as Seneca and Musonius Rufus developed theories of just relationships.
While not advocating equality in society or under the law, they held that nature gives men and women equal capacity for virtue and equal obligations to act virtuously, and that therefore men and women had an equal need for philosophical education.
The daughters of senators and knights seem to have regularly received a primary education for ages 7 to Girls from a modest background might be schooled in order to help with the family business or to acquire literacy skills that enabled them to work as scribes and secretaries.
Her influence put her into conflict with the bishop of AlexandriaCyrilwho may have been implicated in her violent death in the year at the hands of a Christian mob.
But the traditional restriction of women in the public life as well as the hostility against independent women still continued. The church also supported the political power of those who were friendly toward the clergy.
The appointment of mothers and grandmothers as tutors was sanctioned by Justinian. The restrictions on the marriage of senators and other men of high rank with women of low rank were extended by Constantinebut it was almost entirely removed by Justinian.
Second marriages were discouraged, especially by making it legal to impose a condition that a widow's right to property should cease on remarriage, and the Leonine Constitutions at the end of the 9th century made third marriages punishable. The same constitutions made the benediction of a priest a necessary part of the ceremony of marriage.EMPOWERMENT APPROACH TO HUMAN SERVICE MANAGEMENT 2 Empowerment Approach to Human Service Management Paper According to Donna Hardina empowerment is “ described as efforts to expand decision-making roles for non-administrative staff members in social service organizations, empowerment was 96%(25).
Instructions: Write two essays, choosing one from each of the following Section A & B, in about words. Total Marks: Section – A. Farming has lost the ability to be a source of subsistence for majority of farmers in India.
Impact of the new economic measures on . Understanding the Legislation, Regulations and Policies that underpin the protection of Vulnerable Adults. Analyse the differences between the concept of safeguarding and the concept of protection in relation to vulnerable adults. Empowerment Approach to Human Services Management Havalyn Cantrell BSHS/ Heather Zahurak Empowerment Approach to Human Services Management In the wake of many recent tragedies including both those created by nature as well as those caused by man, we have seen the number the human service organizations grow beyond leaps and bounds.
UPSC Civil Services Main Examination Syllabus for IAS. The Civil Services Mains examination aims to test the academic talent and the ability of the candidate to . The goal of Sudoku is to fill in a 9×9 grid with digits so that each column, row, and 3×3 section contain the numbers between 1 to 9.
At the beginning of the game, .