History[ edit ] The idea that women should inhabit a separate domestic sphere has been extant in Western thought for centuries, extending as far back as the ancient Greeks. Some have interpreted his views as confining women to the private realm while men were supposed to occupy the public sphere of the polis.
This period saw the transition from a relatively rigid system of legal proofs which predetermined when there was sufficient evidence for a condemnation, to a system based on the free evaluation of the evidence by either professional judges or lay jurors.
It is the central contention of this article that the reform of the criminal law of evidence can, to an important extent, be explained by two larger underlying ideological changes. These new ideas derived from a change in the epistemological and the political-constitutional discourses between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries.
Recht und Macht in Verfahren gegen Hexen — Zugleich eine Untersuchung zur Entstehung des Inquisitionsprozesses This article examines the reasons, which led to the development and the ending of witch trials in the Holy Roman Empire. First of all, the essay explains the procedural reasons for the introduction of the inquisition procedure and its effects on the prosecution of heretics in the Holy Roman Empire.
Subsequently, the development from the ancient offence of damage magic maleficium to the early modern offence of witchcraft is presented. In particular, the reasons are given for the transformation of the maleficium into an element of witchcraft.
However, the Carolina, the pertinent criminal and criminal procedural law of the Holy Roman Empire stuck to the maleficium.
Nonetheless, the codification of the offence of witchcraft in the Electoral Saxon Constitutions led to the decisive paradigm shift in favour of the offence of witchcraft. Accordingly, the procedure of witch trails is outlined, whereby the focus is on the demarcation of the processus ordinarius and the processus extraordinarius.
The analysis of panel data stretching over such a long time period specifically facilitates the investigation of several hypotheses about the influence of women's employment on the gendered division of labor that are not currently well understood. Our analytical task this week is to attempt a "simple" causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. Gender & Society, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. , Aug carry out the strategy and how the possible difficulties reflect the influence or effects of gender inequality. First-wave feminism was a period of feminist activity and thought that occurred during the 19th and early 20th century throughout the Western world. It focused on legal issues, primarily on gaining the right to vote.. The term first-wave was coined in March by Martha Lear writing in The New York Times Magazine, who at the same time also used the term "second-wave feminism".
Furthermore, this essay explains under which circumstances witch trails were excessive and unlawful. In this context the processus extraordinarius is decidedly examined.
In the last section of this article, the possibilities to obtain legal protection against illegal procedural acts in witch trails are discussed.
Moreover, this article emphasizes that the High Courts of Holy Roman Empire regularly decided in favour of the accused in witch trails. At the same time, the essay shows that the High Courts of the Holy Roman Empire respected the Carolina and contributed significantly to the containment of witch trials.
Keywords Hexenprozesse; Hexenlehre; Constitutio Criminalis Carolina; processus ordinarius; processus extraordinarius; crimen exceptum; crimen magiae; maleficium; Reichskammergericht; Reichshofrat Kamila Staudigl-Ciechowicz: From on anti-Semitic tendencies at the universities were getting stronger, in spring Jewish as well as political opponent scholars and students were forced to leave the Austrian universities due to national socialistic ideology.
The paper shows the expulsions from a legal point of view, stressing the significance of the laws that where enacted between — by the austrofacist government.
University of Vienna; racially- and politically-motivated expulsions, Anti-Semitism, faculty of law and state.
How the judges dispensed justice against several ethnical groups? In the end you could see an of course nationalistsocialist court, but not a highly political and not always unfair one. Raluca Enescu, Leonie Benker: The Birth of Criminalistics and the Transition from Lay to Expert Witnesses in German Courts The European judicial setting underwent profound changes with the shift from testimonial to material evidence at the end of the 19th century.
Expert witnesses possessing specialist knowledge entered the courtroom, throwing shadow on lay witnesses who suddenly were considered unreliable. This evidential mutation arose from the emergence of specialist knowledge delivered by expert witnesses.
New laws were required and judgments were passed in order to clarify the respective competency of experts and judges. Three guideline judgments of the Imperial Court of Justice involving experts are discussed and put in parallel with the principle of free evaluation of evidence as well as with wrongful convictions.
Keywords Judicial decision-making; expert witnesses; lay witnesses; Imperial Court of Justice; history of forensic science; free evaluation of evidence; wrongful convictions.
Russian Law Faculty in Prague — The article is devoted to the little-known page of Russian post-revolutionary emigration - the creation and functioning for about fifteen years of the law faculty, founded by Russian professors of the law faculties of tsarist Russia who emigrated after the October Revolution ofwith the support of the government of Czechoslovakia.
The article shows the main aspects of the activities of the Russian Law Faculty in Prague: Prague; revolution; emigration; law faculty; legal science; law students. We try to use it to confirm or deny the established topics by historiography about the economy and society in the beginning of the fourth century.
From the legal sources we can know that the economy was not so ruinous than we can imagine, the social scale was mainly based in the Army and the nuclear family played an important role, with an unexpected prominence of women.
Diocletian; roman low empire; society; economy; women role; roman family; slavery.the chaos left by hurricane irene and its effects on insurance companies from a claims perspective; an analysis of gender ideologies of society effects of womans position in the labor force.
There are some truths that I strive to preach, for lack of a better word, in today's information-culture wars propagated in our corrupt mainstream media. Gender & Power: Yoruba, Maasai, Igbo Intro: Colonialism was a force that shaped and reshaped many cultures in Africa, including the Maasai, Igbo and Yoruba peoples (Hodgson I, II, ) (Usman ).
which allows us to better understand how the African traditional gender roles we are exploring vary so greatly from the gender ideologies.
Although the implications of these ideologies are not the same, they tend to come together in a search for an antidote to the effects of modernism. For many people, a return to the "primitive" (with primitive referring to society before the effects of modernism) was the antidote, and women who still looked like "true women" was seen .
ity, we can integrate the analysis of the farming, entrepreneurial, and wage sectors within a com- Gender differences in employment and why they matter sequently, gender differentials in labor force participation rates. Socialization plays a major role in determining gender ideologies and what's valued in one time and culture may not necessarily transcend to another.
Despite women's increasing participation in the work force, a gender division of labor persist. There are a number of constraints in the labor market that contribute to the double burden.