Sign up for free to view: Exam 2 Study Guide Lectures: Northouse defines LMX as a role-making process between a leader and each individual and the exchange relationship that develops over time. It is both directive and prescriptive.
Viruses are acellular bioactive parasites that attack virtually every form of cellular life. Their shape is either pseudospherical with icosahedral symmetry, as in the poliomyelitis virus, or rodlike, as in the tobacco mosaic virus TMV.
A virus surrounded only by protein coat capsid is a naked virus; some viruses e. Hepatitis G HGV [ 59 ] viral loads in symptomatic patients are 0.
Thus the typical blood particle burdens in viremia are much the same as in bacteremia, roughly 0. Viral infections can be very difficult to eradicate pharmaceutically, as most treatments are virustatic, not virucidal.
Disseminated systemic candidiasis is effectively managed with 0. Respiratory fungal histoplasmosis Histoplasma capulatum may be treated with oral doses of itraconazole at 0. Blood parasites typically have a juvenile form that is ovoid or ring-shaped with dimensions of microns, and an adult tubular form measuring microns in width and microns in length [ 68 ].
In Trypanosoma brucei, the number of trypanosomes in blood fluctuates in waves, and the organisms are typically undetectable for 3 out of 5 days [ 69 ]. Trypomastigotes have an I. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense inoculated into mice has an LD50 of 0.
Malaria may be treated with several oral doses of chloroquine phosphate totalling 2. The infection is characterized by repetitive cycles of bloodborne organisms, or rickettsemia. However, most of these parasites are found in the red cells, and the organism's appearance in the blood plasma is incidental to its activity.
Plasma titers for free R. Microbivore Scaling Analysis and Baseline Design The foregoing review suggests that existing treatments for many septicemic agents often require large quantities of medications that must be applied over long periods of time, and often achieve only incomplete eradication, or merely growth arrest, of the pathogen.
A nanorobotic device that could safely provide quick and complete eradication of bloodborne pathogens using relatively low doses of devices would be a welcome addition to the physician's therapeutic armamentarium.
The following analysis assumes a bacterial target e. The microbivore is an oblate spheroidal nanomedical device consisting of billion precisely arranged structural atoms plus another billion mostly gas or water molecules when fully loaded Section 3.
The nanorobot measures 3. Its gross geometric volume of The device may consume up to pW of continuous power while in operation and can completely digest trapped microbes at a maximum throughput of 2 micron3 per second cycle, large enough to internalize almost all relevant microbes in a single gulp.
As in previous designs [ 2 ], to help ensure high reliability the system presented here has tenfold redundancy in all major components, excluding only the largest passive structural elements. During each cycle of operation, the target bacterium is bound to the surface of the microbivore via species-specific reversible binding sites [ 1 ].
Telescoping robotic grapples emerge from silos in the device surface, establish secure anchorage to the microbe's plasma membrane, then transport the pathogen to the ingestion port at the front of the device where the cell is internalized into a morcellation chamber.
After sufficient mechanical mincing, the morcellated remains are pistoned into a digestion chamber where a preprogrammed sequence of engineered enzymes are successively injected and extracted, reducing the morcellate primarily to monoresidue amino acids, mononucleotides, glycerol, free fatty acids and simple sugars, which are then harmlessly discharged into the environment through an exhaust port at the rear of the device, completing the cycle.
This "digest and discharge" protocol [ 1 ] is conceptually similar to the internalization and digestion process practiced by natural phagocytes, but the artificial process should be much faster and cleaner. For example, it is well-known that macrophages release biologically active compounds such as muramyl peptides during bacteriophagy [ 76 ], whereas well-designed microbivores need only release biologically inactive effluent.
The microbivore digestive system has four fundamental components -- an array of reversible binding sites to initially bind and trap target microbes Section 3.Study Flashcards On Exam#2 at tranceformingnlp.com Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more.
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Consider using Lagrange interpolation and Chebyshev Polynomials to approximate the function 3 . RPTS Review for Exam 2 (Covers Units 4 & 5) You should understand the following terms: ethnic group, racial group, racism, assimilation, cultural assimilation, structural assimilation, ethnicity hypothesis, marginality hypothesis, selective acculturation, ethnic boundary maintenance.
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Review Outline – Exam 2 – Psy (Fall ) Ch 7 – One-Sample t-test and Dependent Samples t-test 1-Sample t-test used when comparing sample mean to population mean, but population standard deviation is unknown. True/False The medical exam’s core product is annoying poking and prodding false True/False Market research refers to the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data about customers, competitors, and the business environment to improve marketing effectiveness.