120 basic grammar and composition

There are hundreds of grammar rules but the basics refer to sentence structure and parts of speech, which are noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition and conjunction.

120 basic grammar and composition

In the Southern United States, y'all you all is used as a plural form, and various other phrases such as you guys are used in other places. An archaic set of second-person pronouns used for singular reference is thou, thee, thyself, thy, thine, which are still used in religious services and can be seen in older works, such as Shakespeare's - in such texts, the you set of pronouns are used for plural reference, or with singular reference as a formal V-form.

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You can also be used as an indefinite pronounreferring to a person in general see generic you compared to the more formal alternative, one reflexive oneself, possessive one's.

The third-person singular forms are differentiated according to the sex of the referent. For example, she is used to refer to a female person, sometimes a female animal, and sometimes an object to which female characteristics are attributed, such as a ship or a country.

A male person, and sometimes a male animal, is referred to using he. In other cases it can be used. See Gender in English. The word it can also be used as a dummy subjectin sentences like It is going to be sunny this afternoon. The third-person plural forms such as they are sometimes used with singular reference, as a gender-neutral pronounas in each employee should ensure they tidy their desk.

Despite its long history, this usage is sometimes considered ungrammatical. The possessive determiners such as my are used as determiners together with nouns, as in my old man, some of his friends.

The second possessive forms like mine are used when they do not qualify a noun: Note also the construction a friend of mine meaning "someone who is my friend".

See English possessive for more details. Demonstrative and interrogative[ edit ] The demonstrative pronouns of English are this plural theseand that plural thoseas in these are good, I like that. Note that all four words can also be used as determiners followed by a nounas in those cars. The interrogative pronouns are who, what, and which all of them can take the suffix -ever for emphasis.

The pronoun who refers to a person or people; it has an oblique form whom though in informal contexts this is usually replaced by whoand a possessive form pronoun or determiner whose. The pronoun what refers to things or abstracts.

120 basic grammar and composition

The word which is used to ask about alternatives from what is seen as a closed set: It can also be an interrogative determiner: Which, who, and what can be either singular or plural, although who and what often take a singular verb regardless of any supposed number. For more information see who.

All the interrogative pronouns can also be used as relative pronouns; see below for more details. The main relative pronouns in English are who with its derived forms whom and whosewhich, and that.Feel free to download, re-use, or share the following English grammar lessons with your friends, colleagues, or students.

What Are Basic English Grammar Rules?

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BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR B ook 1 Book 1 Book Book 1 Book. Anne Seaton • Y. H.

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Mew Book 1. Would and Should Here’s an old children’s rhyme about the eight parts of speech of English grammar. It gives you an idea of what grammar is about.

120 basic grammar and composition

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